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Protocol

Details

SSDP is the protocol used to announce UPnP devices and services.

It uses HTTP requests with an empty body and the request methods M-SEARCH (poll) or NOTIFY (announce).

These requests are sent from Port-1900-udp to the same port on IPv4 or IPv6 multicast addresses:

  • 239.255.255.250 - IPv4 site-local
  • ff02::c - IPv6 link-local
  • ff05::c - IPv6 site-local
  • ff08::c - IPv6 organization-local
  • ff0e::c - IPv6 global

M-SEARCH requests are used to search / poll the multicast group for a specific device type.

Each NOTIFY request announces one logical UPnP device or service. A physical device like a router can have multiple logical
UPnP root devices, each of which can provide multiple devices and services.

FRITZ!OS

Depending on the model, firmware version and activated features FRITZ!OS announces these logical UPnP root devices:

Each root device uses an XML file describing the devices provided and references to the SCPD files describing the services.

For example: The igd2 root device defined in igd2desc.xml provides the InternetGatewayDevice:2, the WANDevice:2
and the WANConnectionDevice:2 devices and the services Any:1 (any.xml).WANCommonInterfaceConfig:1
(igdicfgSCPD.xml), WANDSLLinkConfig:1 (igddslSCPD.xml), WANIPConnection:2 (igd2connSCPD.xml) and
WANIPv6FirewallControl:1 (igd2ipv6fwcSCPD.xml), each of which are announced separately for IPv4 and IPv6 site-local.

Examples

fw 7.39 Mesh-Master M-SEARCH ssdp:discover request for l2tpv3 devices:

M-SEARCH * HTTP/1.1
Host: 239.255.255.250:1900
Man: "ssdp:discover"
MX: 5
ST: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:l2tpv3:1

Note the trailing double CRLF / empty line. which is necessary to separate the HTTP header from the empty body.

Example explanation showing how the igd2 devices and services are anounced:

At boot time first the igd2 upnp:rootdevice is announced with state ssdp:byebye (off):

NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1
Cache-Control: max-age=1800
Host: 239.255.255.250:1900
Location: http://192.168.178.1:49000/igd2desc.xml
Server: FRITZ!Box 7530 UPnP/1.0 AVM FRITZ!Box 7530 164.07.39
NT: upnp:rootdevice
NTS: ssdp:byebye
USN: uuid:75802409-bccb-40e7-9f6c-MACADDRESS::upnp:rootdevice

Announcing the UUID:

NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1
Cache-Control: max-age=1800
Host: 239.255.255.250:1900
Location: http://192.168.178.1:49000/igd2desc.xml
Server: FRITZ!Box 7530 UPnP/1.0 AVM FRITZ!Box 7530 164.07.39
NT: uuid:75802409-bccb-40e7-9f6c-MACADDRESS
NTS: ssdp:byebye
USN: uuid:75802409-bccb-40e7-9f6c-MACADDRESS

Announcing the URN of the InternetGatewayDevice:2:

NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1
Cache-Control: max-age=1800
Host: 239.255.255.250:1900
Location: http://192.168.178.1:49000/igd2desc.xml
Server: FRITZ!Box 7530 UPnP/1.0 AVM FRITZ!Box 7530 164.07.39
NT: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:InternetGatewayDevice:2
NTS: ssdp:byebye
USN: uuid:75802409-bccb-40e7-9f6c-MACADDRESS::urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:InternetGatewayDevice:2

These 3 requests are repeated for IPv6, if enabled. All 6 are repeated for WANDevice:2 and WANConnectionDevice:2.
After this the services are announced, still with ssdp:byebye (off) state:

NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1
Cache-Control: max-age=1800
Host: 239.255.255.250:1900
Location: http://192.168.178.1:49000/igd2desc.xml
Server: FRITZ!Box 7530 UPnP/1.0 AVM FRITZ!Box 7530 164.07.39
NT: urn:schemas-any-com:service:Any:1
NTS: ssdp:byebye
USN: uuid:75802409-bccb-40e7-9f6c-MACADDRESS::urn:schemas-any-com:service:Any:1

This is repeated for each service and for IPv6. For igd2 this sums up to:

  • 18 NOTIFY requests to announce 3 devices
  • 10 NOTIFY requests to announce 5 services

Once the system is booted the complete procedure is repeated with ssdp:alive state.

And all this was just the igd2 root device, and happens for every other active root device the same way.

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